Most sedating antidepressants
There are also some reports of scopolamine inducing migraine, as well as a withdrawall syndrome.Cholinergic agonists that cross into the brain, such as physostigmine, can cause a motion-sickness syndrome (Soto et al, 2013).Anticholinergics also affect compensation, producing a reversible overcompensation if administered after compensation has been attained to a vestibular imbalance (Zee, 1988).Agents with central anticholinergic effects are most important in treating vertigo, since anticholinergic drugs that do not cross the blood-brain barrier are ineffective in controlling motion sickness (Takeda et al, 1989).Serotonin receptors are also found in the vestibular nerve and vestibular nucleus (5HT-1, 2 and 7, according to Soto et al, 2013), but the functional significance of this uncertain (Ahn and Balaban, 2010). Withdrawall from serotonergic drugs, such as SSRI antidepressants, is commonly associated with vertigo, and serotonin depletion can cause severe dizziness (Soto et al, 2013).It has been speculated that this is due to loss of inhibition of glutamate -- in other words, increased vestibular responses as glutamate is excitatory (Smith PF, Darlington CL, 2010).
Both the H1 and H2 subtypes of histamine receptors affect vestibular responses (Serafin et al, 1992).
However there are also nicotinic receptors, as well as M1 and M5 (Soto et al, 2013).
In the CNS, the N or P/Q type are the ones that participate in neurotransmitter release.
Glycine receptors colocate with GABA receptors (Soto et al, 2312).
The circuitry by which several other neurotransmitters affect vestibular responses is less well understood.